Chapter 2
Experimental Techniques

In this chapter, the experimental techniques used over the course of this thesis will be explained. These are all common surface science techniques, ranging from measurements averaged over a large area of the surface (Auger electron spectroscopy, Section 2.1; low-energy electron diffraction, Section 2.2; etc.) to a very localised technique that can probe materials on the atomic scale (scanning tunneling microscopy, Section 2.3). The most accurate ab initio simulation technique available, density functional theory, is invaluable in explaining observed experimental results, and will be examined in Section 2.6.

 2.1 Auger electron spectroscopy
  2.1.1 The Auger effect
  2.1.2 Auger electron spectroscopy
  2.1.3 Auger electron spectroscopy set-up
 2.2 Low-energy electron diffraction
  2.2.1 Bragg’s law
  2.2.2 The reciprocal lattice
  2.2.3 Surface diffraction
  2.2.4 Low-energy electron diffraction apparatus
 2.3 Scanning tunneling microscopy
  2.3.1 Quantum tunneling
  2.3.2 The scanning tunneling microscope
  2.3.3 Createc GmbH LT-STM
  2.3.4 Omicron GmbH VT-STM
  2.3.5 Image processing
 2.4 X-ray absorption spectroscopy
 2.5 X-ray photoemission spectroscopy
 2.6 Density functional theory
  2.6.1 The theorems of Hohenberg and Kohn
  2.6.2 Kohn-Sham theory
  2.6.3 Basis sets and pseudopotentials
  2.6.4 Methfessel-Paxton smearing